In all drawings, the distal pole is on top, the proximal pole at the bottom, unless otherwise specified.
e = equatorial view, p = polar view; H = high level, L = low level.
The terms printed in bold are preferred.
The colors are according the scheme described in the introduction.
Click on a drawing for a full sized picture.
|Decussate tetrad (Walker and Doyle, 1975)|
| A multiplanar tetrad of pollen grains or spores
arranged in two pairs lying across one another, the pairs (dyads) more or less at right angles to each other. Example: Orophea
|Demicolpus (pl. demicolpi, adj. demicolpate) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| An ectocolpus divided into two parts. Example: Amylotheca
| A prefix for two.
|Dicolpate, dicolporate, diporate (adj.) (Iversen and Troels-Smith, 1950)|
| Describing pollen grains with two ectocolpi, two compound apertures or two pores.
|Dicolporate (adj.) (Cranwell, 1953)|
| Synonym of diploporate.
|* Digitate (adj.) (Skvarla and Larson, 1965)|
| With bacula or columellae which are branched distally into two or more parts. Example:
|Diorate (adj.) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Synonym of diploporate.
|Diploporate (adj.) (Fægri and Iversen, 1964)|
| Describing an ectocolpus with two endoapertures. Example: Didymeles (Didymelaceae).
|Diploxylonoid (adj.) (Traverse, 1988)|
| Describing bisaccate pollen
grains in which the outline of the sacci in polar view is discontinuous with the outline of the corpus so that the grains seem to consist of three distinct, more
or less oval parts.
|Discordant pattern (Fægri and Iversen, 1989)|
| A pattern in a tectate pollen grain in which the arrangement of the columellae is different from that of the elements on the tectum. Example: Geranium (Geraniaceae).
|The morphological unit in which mature pollen grains or spores are shed, which may range from individuals (monads), to pairs (dyads), groups of four (tetrads), or groups of more than four (polyads). Larger, indeterminate numbers of pollen grains or spores may also be dispersed as pollinia or massulae.|
|* Dissections (Couper and Grebe, 1961)|
| Rounded to elongated cavities in a cingulum or zona. Example: Vallatisporites ciliaris.
| A common descriptive term (Jackson, 1928) used in contrast to proximal, applied in
palynology to features on the surface that face
outward in the tetrad stage (Wodehouse, 1935).
|Distal face (Erdtman, 1952)|
| That part of a palynomorph that faces outwards the centre of the tetrad, between equator and distal
|Distal pole (Erdtman, 1952)|
| The centre of the surface of the distal face.
|* Disulcate (adj.) (Harley, 1998)|
| Describing pollen grains with sulci arranged in pairs. Two
types of disulcate pollen are distinguished: equatorial disulcate, with opposing, eaquatorially
arranged sulci and distal disulcate with paired sulci lying parallel to the long axis of the pollen
grain on the distal face. Examples: Metroxylon salomonense (Palmae) (equatorial disulcate),
Chamaerops humilis (Palmae) (distal disulcate).
|Duplibaculate (adj.) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Synonym of duplicolumellate.
|Duplicolumellate (adj.) (Reitsma, 1970)|
| With columellae in two rows under each murus. Example: Polygonum persicaria (Polygonaceae).
| General term for two microspores (pollen
grains or spores) united as a dispersal
|Echinate (adj.) (sing. echina, pl. echinae) (Wodehouse, 1928)|
| Describing pollen and spores with
an ornamentation comprising
spines longer than 1µm.
|Echinolophate (adj.) (Wodehouse, 1928)|
| Describing a lophate pollen grain
with echinate ridges.
|Ectexine (sensu Fægri, 1956)|
| The outer part of the exine, which stains positively with basic fuchsin in optical microscopy and has
higher electron density in conventionally prepared TEM sections. Orthographical variant: ektexine.
|A prefix for outer.|
|Ectoaperture (Van Campo, 1958)|
| An aperture in the outer layer of the sporoderm.
|Ectointine (Freytag, 1968)|
|Synonym of exintine.|
|Ektannulus (pl. ektannuli) (Batten and Christopher, 1981)|
| An abrupt thickening of the outer wall layer in the region
of the exogerminal. Example: Krutzschipollis.
|Ektexine (Erdtman, 1943)|
| Orthographic variant of ectexine.
|Orthographical variant of the prefix ecto-.|
| A spirally twisted, filamentous band attached to certain
spores and some fossil pollen grains (Jackson, 1928).
Example: Equisetum (Equisetaceae).
|Endannulus (pl. endannuli) (Thomson and Pflug, 1953)|
| An annulus formed by the endexine of a pollen
grain. Example: Atlantopollis.
|Endexine (sensu Fægri, 1956)|
| The inner part of the exine which remains relatively unstained with basic fuchsin in optical microscopy
and has a lower electron density in conventionally prepared TEM sections.
Endintine (Kress and Stone, 1982)
| The inner, cellulosic zone of the intine which is adjacent to the cytoplasm and in fluorescence microscopy stains
positively with PAS calcofluor.
|A prefix for inner.|
|Endoaperture (Van Campo, 1958)|
| An aperture in the inner layer of the sporoderm, often the inner aperture of a compound aperture.
|Endoaperture area (Verbeek-Reuvers, 1976)|
| The region of the nexine of a single compound aperture which encloses a number of endoapertures.
|Endocingulum (pl. endocingula, adj. endocingulate) (Reitsma, 1966)|
| A ring-shaped endoaperture continuous around a pollen grain and lying in the equatorial plane. Example: Polygonum convolvulus
|Endocrack (Oldfield, 1959)|
| An irregular groove occurring in the inner surface of the
nexine/endexine and readily apparent in acetolysed pollen. Example: Anemone nemorosa
|Endogerminal (adj.) (Batten and Christopher, 1981)|
| Describing an aperture in the inner wall layer.
|Endointine (Freytag, 1968)|
|Orthographic variant of endintine.|
|Endoplica (pl. endoplicae) (Thomson and Pflug, 1953)|
| A fold or swelling of the inner wall layer.
|Endosculpture (Van Campo, 1971)|
|Sculpturing occurring on the inner surface of the nexine/endexine.|
| The innermost layer of a spore wall (Jackson, 1928).
|Endosporium (Erdtman, 1943)|
| Synonym of intine.
|Equator (Wodehouse, 1935)|
| The dividing line between the distal and proximal
faces of a pollen grain or spore.
| Often misappropriately used as a synonym of equatorial diameter.
|Equatorial bridge (Moore and Webb, 1978)|
| Synonym of bridge.
|Equatorial diameter (Erdtman, 1943)|
| A line, lying in the equatorial plane, perpendicular to the polar axis and passing through it.
|Equatorial lacuna (pl. equatorial lacunae) (Wodehouse, 1928)|
| A lacuna situated on the equator in the mesocolpial region of a lophate pollen grain.
Example: Tragopogon pratensis (Compositae).
| Synonym of equatorial outline.
| General description of the equator when a pollen grain is seen in polar view.
|Equatorial plane (Fægri and Iversen, 1950)|
| The plane perpendicular to the polar axis and lying midway between the poles.
|Equatorial ridge (Wodehouse, 1928)|
| A ridge lying along the equator in the mesocolpial region, usually applied to lophate pollen grains.
Example: Cichorium intybus (Compositae).
|Equatorial view (Erdtman, 1943)|
| The view of a pollen grain or spore
where the equatorial plane is directed towards
|Equiaxe (adj.equiaxal) (Van Campo, 1966)|
| Pollen grains with a polar
axis equal to the equatorial
|Erect (adj.) (Reitsma, 1970)|
| Synonym of prolate.
|Etectate (adj.) (Walker, 1976)|
| Describing pollen grains interpreted as having lost their tectum during
| A prefix for true.
|Euintine (Kuprianova, 1956)|
|Synonym of endintine.|
|Eurypalynous (adj.) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Describing plant taxa characterized by possession of a great
diversity of palynomorphs.
| Describing a pollen grain with a continuous tectum.
|Exine (pl. exines, adj. exinal, exinous) (Fritzsche, 1837)|
| The outer layer of the wall of a palynomorph, which is highly resistant to strong acids and bases, and is
composed primarily of sporopollenin.
|* Exine 1 (Erdtman, 1969)|
| Synonym of ectexine.
|* Exine 2 (Erdtman, 1969)|
| Synonym of endexine.
|Exintine (Kress and Stone, 1982)|
| An outer (pectic) layer of the intine, lying below the nexine, and which stains positively with alcian blue.
|Exitus (Wodehouse, 1935)|
| The site of exit of the pollen tube from the sporoderm.
|Exoexine (Potonié, 1934)|
| Synonym of sexine.
|Exogerminal (adj.) (Batten and Christopher, 1981)|
| Describing an aperture formed in the outer wall layer of the exine.
| The outer layer of a spore wall (Jackson, 1928).
|Exosporium (Erdtman, 1943)|
| Synonym of exine.
|Fastigium (pl. fastigia, adj. fastigiate) (Reitsma, 1966)|
| Cavity in a colporate grain, appearing as a separation of the inner part of the exine from the domed sexine in the region of the endoaperture. Example: Hypericum
|Fenestrate (adj.) (Iversen and Troels-Smith, 1950)|
| Describing a class of pollen grains characterized by large, window-like spaces lacking a tectum.
|Fimbria (pl. fimbriae, adj. fimbriate)|
| Long, hair-like appendages (Jackson, 1928).
|Fischer's law/rule (Erdtman, 1952)|
| The name given to the widespread arrangement in
developmental tetrads of tri-aperturate pollen grains whereby the apertures form in pairs at six points in the tetrad. Example: Ericaceae
|Fissura (pl. fissurae) (Potonié, 1934)|
|A sharp, straight split that appears during germination in certain inaperturate pollen grains. Examples: Taxodium (Taxodiaceae), Cupressus (Cupressaceae).|
| A general term, used to describe equatorial extensions of
spores (Jackson, 1928).
|Foot layer (Fægri, 1956)|
| The inner layer of the ectexine.
|Foramen (pl. foramina, adj. forate, which is an abbreviation of foraminate) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Synonym of pore.
|Fossaperturate (adj.) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Refers to an equatorially aperturate, lobate pollen grain with the apertures in the indentations between the lobes.
|Fossula (pl. fossulae, adj. fossulate) (Fægri and Iversen, 1950)|
| A feature of ornamentation consisting of an elongated, irregular groove in the surface.
|Fossula (Kuprianova, 1948)|
| Synonym of areola.
|Foveola (pl. foveolae, adj. foveolate) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| A feature of ornamentation consisting of more or less rounded depressions or
lumina more than 1µm in diameter. The distance between foveolae is greater than their
|Frustillum (pl. frustilla, adj. frustillate) (Fægri and Iversen, 1964)|
| Synonym of areola.
| A common word for an elongate aperture.
|Furrow membrane (Wodehouse, 1935)|
| Synonym of colpus membrane.
|Galea (pl. galeae, adj. galeate) (Sullivan, 1964)|
| A relatively large element of the outer wall of a
spore consisting of a sharply tapering spine and a broad
|Garside's law/rule (Garside, 1946; Erdtman, 1952)|
| The name given to an unusual arrangement in
developmental tetrads of tri-aperturate pollen whereby
the apertures form in groups of three at four points in the tetrad.
|Geminicolpate (adj.) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Describing pollen grains with colpi
arranged in pairs.
|Gemma (pl. gemmae, adj. gemmate) (Iversen and Troels-Smith, 1950)|
|A sexine element which is constricted at its base, higher than 1µm, and that has approximately the same width as its height.|
|The cell in a pollen grain which divides to form male gametes (Jackson, 1928).|
|Geniculum (pl. genicula, adj. geniculate) (Potonié, 1934)|
| A bulge in the equatorial exine of the colpus, often associated with a separation of the sexine from the nexine and the rupturing of the latter. Examples: Fraxinus (Olea
ceae), Quercus (Faga- ceae).
|Germinal aperture (Wodehouse, 1935)|
| A hole in the furrow membrane through which the pollen tube emerges.
|Goniotreme (adj.) (Erdtman and Straka, 1961)|
| Synonym of angulaperturate.
|Granular exine (Van Campo and Lugardon, 1973)|
| A type of exine stratification in which the infratectal layer is composed of more or less rounded,
granules rather than of columellae or other structures.
|Granulate granulatus (adj.) (Erdtman, 1947)|
|Granule (pl. granules, adj. granular, granulose)|
|General word for a small, rounded element.|
|Granulum (pl.granula, adj.granulate, granulose) (sensu Erdtman, 1952)|
| A very small and rounded element of the sexine/ectexine that is less than 1µm in all directions.
|Granum (pl. grana) (Potonié, 1934)|
|The combined elements gemmae and verrucae.|
| A general descriptive word.
|Gula (pl. gulae, adj. gulate) (Potonié and Kremp, 1955)|
| A rather ornate projecting, neck-like, extension on the
proximal face of a trilete spore. Example:
|Halo (Erdtman, 1952; Fægri and Iversen, 1989)|
| A clear zone around a well defined feature such as a
spine or an aperture. Examples: Ranunculus acris (Ranunculaceae),
|Hamulate (adj.) (Krutzsch, 1959)|
| Describing a form of rugulate ornamentation consisting of irregularly arranged, winding, or angular
rounded muri of varying thickness, which do not form
a distinct reticulum, but rather a maze-like pattern.
Example: Lycopodiella inundata (Lycopodiaceae).
|Haploxylon-type (Rudolph, 1935)|
| Bisaccate pollen in
which the outline of the sacci in polar view is more or less continuous with the outline of the
corpus, so that the grains appear a more or less
smooth ellipsoidal form. Examples: Pinus cembra, Picea (Pinaceae).
|Haploxylonoid (adj.) (Traverse, 1988)|
| Describing bisaccate pollen in
which the outline of the sacci in polar view is more
or less continuous with the outline of the corpus, so
that the grains appear a more or less smooth ellipsoidal form.
|Harmomegathy (adj. harmomegathic) (Wodehouse, 1935)|
|The process by which pollen grains and spores change in shape to accommodate variations in the volume of the cytoplasm caused by changing hydration.|
|H-endoaperture (Punt and Nienhuis, 1976)|
|An elaborate endoaperture, consisting of a central part which connects two lateral, longitudinal elongations, forming an "H" shape. Examples: Cornus (Cornacaea), Centaurium (Gentianaceae).|
|Heterobrochate (adj.) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Describing a reticulum with brochi of different sizes. Examples:
Adoxa Moschatelina (Adoxaceae), Forsythia europaea (Oleaceae).
|Heterocolpate (adj.) (Iversen and Troels-Smith, 1950)|
| Describing pollen grains with both simple and compound colpi present. Examples: Lythrum,
Peplis (Lythraceae), Myosotis Boraginaceae).
|Heteropolar (adj.) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Describing pollen or spores in
which the distal and proximal faces of the exine are different, either in shape, ornamentation or apertural system. Example: Echium
| Describing plants producing both microspores and megaspores (Jackson, 1928).
|Hilum (pl. hila, adj. hilate) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Circular, indistinctly delimited, irregular aperture or thinning in spores. Examples: Aequitriradites verrucosus, Couperisporites
|Homobrochate (adj.) (Erdtman, 1952)|
| Describing a reticulum with brochi of the same sizes. Example:
Armeria maritima (Plumbaginaceae).
| Describing plants producing only one kind of spores (Jackson, 1928).
|Horn (Huynh, 1970)|
| An elongated part of an endoaperture, which is curved towards one of the poles. Example: Anagallis arvensis (Primulaceae).
|Updated 16 April 1999||
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