There are two special versions of this page, both without headers, background etc. A full color one and one with black and white drawings. When printed according the instructions the B/W version will fit in the 1994 book.
In all drawings, the distal pole is on top, the proximal pole at the bottom, unless otherwise specified.
e = equatorial view, p = polar view; H = high level, L = low level.
The terms printed in bold are preferred.
The colors are according the scheme described in the introduction.
Click on a drawing for a full sized picture.
|A-type tetrad (Moar, 1993)|
| A tetrad in which the aborted cells (1-3 in number) are clearly associated with the
fertile grain(s). Example: Cyathodes juniperina (Epacridaceae).
See also: S-type tetrad, T-type tetrad.
|Acanthomamilla (Balme, 1988)|
|A biform sculptural element consisting of a hemispheroidal base, surmounted by a sharply contracted spine. Examples: Acinosporites, Diblolisporites.|
|Acolpate (adj.) (Moar, 1993)|
|Ancyrate (adj.) (Balme, 1988)|
|Bearing sub-cylindrical or tapering processes which divide at their distal extrimities into anchor-shaped or multifurcate tips.|
|Apiculate elements (Smith and Butterworth, 1967)|
|Projections from the general surface. Examples: bacula, pila, verrucae, spines.|
|Bireticulate (adj.) (Bor, 1979)|
|A two layered reticulum consisting of a suprareticulum supported by a microreticulate tectum. Examples: Entelea arborescens (Tiliaceae), Phyllanthus oppositifolius (Euphorbiaceae), Salvia azurea (Lamiaceae).|
|Colpororate (adj.) (Moar, 1993)|
| A compound aperture characterised by an ectoaperture, a shorter lolongate mesoaperture and a lalongate endoaperture. Example: Sonchus (Compositae).
|Conjunctate (adj.) (Skvarla and Larson, 1965)|
| With bacula or columellae branched proximally into two or more parts.
|Cryptopolar (Gupta and Udar, 1986)|
| Describing a spore in which the distal and proximal
faces have dissimmilar sculpturing
and lacks tetrad mark. Example: Calobryum
dentatum, Haplomitrium hookeri.
|Cupulate (adj.) (Gupta and Udar, 1986)|
| Synonym of foveolate
|Digitate (adj.) (Skvarla and Larson, 1965)|
| With bacula or columellae branched distally into two or more parts. Example:
|Dissections (Couper and Grebe, 1961)|
| Rounded to elongated cavities in a cingulum or zona.
Example: Vallatisporites ciliaris.
Synonym of vacuoles.
|Disulcate (adj.) (Harley, 1998)|
| Describing pollen grains with sulci arranged in pairs. Two
types of disulcate pollen are distinguished: equatorial disulcate, with opposing, eaquatorially
arranged sulci and distal disulcate with paired sulci lying parallel to the long axis of the pollen
grain on the distal face. Examples: Metroxylon salomonense (Palmae) (equatorial disulcate),
Chamaerops humilis (Palmae) (distal disulcate).
See also: dicolpate, dicolporate, diporate, geminicolpate.
|Exine 1 (Erdtman, 1969)|
| Synonym of ectexine.
|Exine 2 (Erdtman, 1969)|
| Synonym of endexine.
|Impression mark (Harley, 1996)|
|A mark on the proximal face of a pollen grain retained from the post-meiotic stage. This mark can be linear from tetragonal tetrads or Y-shaped from tetrahedral tetrads. Examples: Nypa fruticans, Howea belmooreana (Palmae).|
|Inner tetrad mark (Gupta and Udar, 1986)|
| A tetrad
mark at the inner layer of a spore and
which does not reach up to the margin when seen in polar
view and always smaller than the outer tetrad mark.
|Metareticulum (adj. microreticulate) (Borsch and Bathlott, 1998)|
|A reticulum wich is characterized by the consistent presence of one porate aperture in each lumen. Examples: Froelichia floridana (Amaranthaceae), Viviania rosea (Vivianiaceae), Kallstroemia maxima (Zygophyllaceae).|
|Murornate sculpture elements (Smith and Butterworth, 1967)|
|Elevations of the general surface. Examples: cristae, muri.|
|Nudate (adj.) (Punt et al., 1976)|
|Synonym of psilate.|
|Ornate (adj.) (Erdtman, 1953)|
|Describing a reticulate ornamentation consisting of broad, curved muri and lumina that are often anastomosing. Example: Ceiba aesculifolia (Bombacaceae).|
|Paracavate (adj.) (Balme, 1988)|
|An exine in which the intexine is clearly defined but in which its degree of seperation from the exoexine is uncertain or indeterminate. Example: Ancyrospora langii.|
|Paraisopolar (Praglowski et al., 1983)|
| Describing a pollen grain whose polar
faces differ only in the attachment of viscin
threads to the proximal pole.
Synonym of subisopolar.
Comment: Most pollen grains with viscin threads have polar faces of which one is less/more convex than the other.
|Polar distance (Punt, 1984)|
| The vertical distance from the equator to the pole
|Polumbra (Balme, 1988)|
| A darkened triangular or subcircular area centred on the
proximal pole. Example: Retusotriletes
Comment: The feature appears to be most commonly observed in specimens that have lost a perisporal outer exoexinal layer.
See also: hilum.
|Polyporate (adj.) (Moar, 1993)|
| With many pores.
Synonym of pantoporate.
|Protosaccus (pl. protosacci, adj. protosaccate) (Scheuring, 1974)|
| A saccus which is completely filled with
an alveolar structure. Example: Luekisporites
Synonym of quasisaccus and saccoid.
Comment: This feature is used in the description of pollen in the Perm - Trias. For extant saccate pollen grains don't show this character it is considered to be primitive.
See also: bisaccate, monosaccate, pseudosaccus, saccus.
|Proximocavate (adj.) (Balme, 1988)|
| An exine in which the exoexine is detached,
or partly detached, from the intexine only on the proximal face.
|Quasisaccus (pl. quasisacci, adj. quasisaccate) (Meyen, 1988)|
| Synonym of protosaccus.
|Quasitectate (adj.) (Balme, 1988)|
|A spore exine in which the outer and inner, more or less homogeneous, layers aer seperated by a clearly defined mesexinous layer of discontinous columellate elements, simulating those that characterise many angiosperm pollen.|
|Reticuloid (adj.) (Moar, 1993)|
| With bacula arranged in a more or less reticulate pattern.
Synonym of retipilate.
|S-type tetrad (Moar, 1993)|
| A tetrad in which only one members is fully developed. Example: Leucopogon
See also: A-type tetrad, T-type tetrad.
|Saccoid (Brugman, 1983)|
| A saccus-like expansion of the exine with a complex infrastructure build up by a three dimensional
network of sexine elements, extending to and fused with
Synonym of protosaccus.
See also: camera, pseudosaccus, saccus.
|Sculpural density (Balme, 1988)|
|The estimated number of sculptural elements in an area of 100 µm2 of the surface of the exine.|
|Sexine 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (Reitsma, 1970)|
| A system of sexine stratification in which sexine 1 is the innermost and sexine 5 in the
outermost layer of the sexine.
Comment: Usually the sexine consists of 3 layers (sexine 1 = columellae; sexine 2 = tectum; sexine 3 = sclupture elements).
|Synrugoidate (adj.) (Wodehouse, 1935; Jalan and Kapil, 1964)|
| Describing a pollen grain with six colpi of which three are long and meeting at one pole and three are short and not meeting at either pole. Example: Schisandra
|T-type tetrad (Moar, 1993)|
| A tetrad in which all four members are fully developed. Example:
Pentachondra pumila (Epacridaceae).
See also: A-type tetrad, S-type tetrad.
|Tuberculate (adj.) (Moar, 1993)|
|Covered with knobbly projections.|
|Turriform (Balme, 1988)|
|Biform sculptural elements consisting of a capitate basal portion surmounted by a sharply contracted distal spine. Example: Dibolisporites.|
|Urceolate (adj.) (Ferguson et al., 1983)|
| Describing a type of ornamentation consisting of urn-shaped
elements situated on the footlayer. Example: Pinanga aristata (Palmae).
|Vacuoles (Grebe, 1971)|
| Rounded to elongated spaces within an equatorial faeture.
Example: Vallatisporites ciliares.
Synonym of dissections.
Comment: In botanical sence, vacuole is a general term for a with liquid filled cellular component (Jackson, 1928). In latin it means a hollow space, and in this sence this term is used.
|Updated 16 April 1999||
||Design and maintenance by Peter Hoen|