Key to the Pollen of the Bahamas©

Links to the keys.

Link to the Master Key Link to the Submaster Key to Rotational Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Porate Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Tricolpate Grains Link to the Submaster Key to Tricolporate Grains Link to the Key to Vesiculate Grains Link to the Key to Tetrad Grains Link to the Key to Polyad Grains Link to the Key to Bilaterally Symmetrical Grains and Spores Link to the Key to Inaperturate and Irregular Grains Link to the Key to Subtetrahedral Spores
Link to the Key to Stephanocolpate Grains Link to the Key to Pericolpate Grains Link to the Key to Monocolporate Grains Link to the Key to Polycolporate Grains Link to the Key to Tetracolporate Grains Link to the Key to Monocolpate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Psilate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Scabrate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Verrucate, Echinate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Suprareticulate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Per-reticulate Grains
Link to the Key to Tricolpate, Intectate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Psilate, Scabrate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Echinate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Foveate, Suprareticulate Grains Link to the Key to Tricolporate, Intectate, Per-reticulate Grains Link to the Key to Monoporate Grains Link to the Key to Diporate Grains Link to the Key to Triporate Grains Link to the Key to Stephanoporate Grains Link to the Key to Periporate Grains

Highlighted words are linked to their glossary definitions.
Definitions and images contributed by the Glossary of Pollen and Spore Terminology,second and revised edition by Peter Hoen.



Euphorbia heterophylla Image

Calliandra Image

College of the Bahamas

Pavonia Image

Polypodium aureum Image







Key to the Pollen of the Bahamas©

Version 1

2007

 

 

by

 

Thomas P. Snyder1, Jennifer L. Chiantello1, Eric Kjellmark2, and Kaitlin  B. Baumgardner1

1Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI   49931, tpsnyder@mtu.edu,
and 2Department of Biology, Florida Southern College, 111 Lake Hollingsworth Drive, Lakeland, FL 33801-5698, ekjellmark@flsouthern.edu

 

with the

 

Glossary of Pollen and Spore Terminology3

Second and Revised Edition

by

 

Peter Hoen
Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Budapestlaan 4, NL-3584 CD Utrecht
THE NETHERLANDS

3All Rights Reserved, used with permission

 

 

This key published by The Gerace Research Center, San Salvador, Bahamas

U.S. address – c/o Sonic Express Inc.
2800 SW 4th Ave., Bay #6
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33315

geraceresearchcenter.com

All Rights Reserved

© Thomas P. Snyder, 2007, All Rights Reserved 


 

Introduction

 

The purpose of this key is to facilitate the study of the botanical history of the islands of the Bahamas.  The species represented in this key are a small fraction of the flowering plants found in the Bahamas but include the vast bulk of both herbaceous and tree species likely to be encountered in cores from blue holes or lake sediments.  The taxonomy used follows D.S. Correll and H.B. Correll , 1982, Flora of the Bahama Archipelago, A.R. Gantner Verlag.  The pollens represented in this key were collected on Andros Island by Eric Kjellmark and on San Salvador by Tom and Karen Snyder.  A list of included taxa and sources may be found in Table 1.   San Salvador collections include both field collected material and pollen from identified specimens in the herbarium of the Gerace Research Center. 

 

It has been the attempt of the authors to keep the terminology used in the keys as simple as possible with technical terminology used in the key linked to the excellent, illustrated glossary of pollen terminology prepared by Peter Hoen and included here with his permission.  The keys follow the general format and use the terminology of  Knut Faegri, Peter E. Kaland and Knut Krzywinski, 1989, Textbook of Pollen Analysis, IVth ed., the Blackburn Press.  An additional resource used to interpret the natures of apertures of some grains was G. Erdtman, 1966, Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy, Hafner Publishing Co.

 

 

Use of the Keys

 

The link back to this introduction page is found at the bottom of each webpage contained in the key.

There are links to the Master Key, the Submaster Keys, and Keys to identified pollen types at the top of each webpage.  If you have prior knowledge about the identification of your species of interest, these links can be used to bypass parts of the key.  If you have no prior knowledge of your species, click on the link to the Master Key to begin.  The key can then be used in the same manner as you would use any other taxonomic key.  As you follow the choices, thus narrowing down the scope of your search, you will find links to either a Submaster Key or a Key for a specific pollen type, as appropriate until a species classification is reached.  Besides the links to the other keys, there are also links to definitions pertaining to the  classification of the pollen.  These blue, underlined terms link with the Glossary of Pollen and Spore Terminology.  If more information on this glossary is desired, follow the link found at the bottom of each webpage.  

There are thumbnail images for the each of the species contained in the keys.   By clicking on the thumbnail image, a separate window will open displaying an image of  1000 x 750 pixels.  If this size is inadequate for your needs, simply right-click on the image, save it to your desktop, and open it in a photo editor of your choice.   The image can then manipulated, as desired, by using the photo editor. The  image files have multiple high resolution images for each taxon which show both polar and equatorial views of grains as well as high and low focus views.  All specimens used as reference were prepared by acetolysis and mounted in glycerol jelly.  For information on the taxa included in the key and the sources, follow the link found at the bottom of each webpage.  This information can also be reached by clicking on the image caption.

This key can be used independently of the internet.  Simply click on the Download icon at the bottom of the webpage.  When prompted, first choose 'Save to Disk' and then select 'OK'.   Unzip the downloaded folder, open the README.txt file and follow the directions.

 
All dimensions for grains are given in the order of equatorial width x polar length.  This order differs from Erdtman who lists polar length first. Single dimensions are given for spherical grains as well as for irregularly shaped grains where the largest dimension is given.  Users should bear in mind that dimensions of grains vary with the preparation and mounting medium used.  Grains mounted in silicone oil will be smaller than those given for glycerol mounts. 

The bulk of the photographic images were taken at 1000X  magnification with a Zeiss microscope equipped with a Neofluar 100/1.30 oil objective and 10X Kpl ocular using standard transmitted light. The magnification of any photographic image not taken at 1000X is explicitly noted in the thumbnail image caption.  Large grains were photographed at 400X using a Neofluar 40/0.75 objective. The camera used was a Nikon Coolpix 4300 with a Nikon UR-E4 stepdown adapter ring threaded directly onto a threaded Zeiss Kpl 10X ocular mounted in a Zeiss trinocular head. The images were recorded at 2048 x 1536 pixels.

 

Acknowledgements

 

The authors gratefully acknowledge the encouragement of Don and Kathy Gerace whose love of San Salvador and its natural history and archaeology is infectious.  Vince Voegeli and the Gerace Research Center graciously allowed use of the herbarium as a source of many identified taxa and hosted Tom Snyder for part of a sabbatical in 2004 when much of the collection of material from San Salvador was conducted.    Dr. Phil Camill and the Department of Biology of Carleton College also hosted Tom Snyder for part of a sabbatical in 2004 where the digitized images were taken of pollen from Andros Island and  where Phil patiently introduced Tom to the world of pollen analysis and paleoecology. 


  To download the taxonomic key: link to download key   To return to  the introduction: link to introduction   For information on the included taxa: link to taxa and sources   For information on the glossary: link to glossary introduction